GEOL 121. Geology and the Environment Credits: 4. First-hand introduction to the materials the Earth is made of, as well as the forces that shape the Earth, and interactions between human activities and the environment. Many of the labs are done in the field. Fulfills natural science and mathematics and social justice/environmental responsibility requirements. Offered yearly in fall.
GEOL 122. Historical Geology Credits: 4. Historical account of discovery of geologic time and development of the theory of evolution; origin and development of the earth; geologic history of North America—both life and lands. Emphasis in laboratory on interpretation of earth history and use of the Quaker Quadrangle. Fulfills natural science and mathematics requirement. Offered yearly in spring.
GEOL 141. Oceanography Credits: 4. Formation of the earth and oceans; shape and composition of the ocean floor; plate tectonics. Waves and tides, seawater chemistry, climate, and the ocean’s interaction with the atmosphere. Fulfills natural science and mathematics and social justice/environmental responsibility requirements.
GEOL 150. Special Topics Credits: 4. Recent topics include geographical information systems and remote sensing, reefs of Puerto Rico, environmental history of China, climate and history, earth systems science, GIS and image processing and soil science. May also be offered at 250, 350 and 450 levels.
GEOL 151. HP:Climate and History Credits: 4. Explores the roles of global climate and climate change in the evolution and development of human beings and their cultures. Topics include climate-driven migration, effects of ice ages, climate change during the last two millennia and their effects on subsistence, war, commerce and exploration and what to expect in the next century. Prerequisite: ENGL 102. Fulfills Historical Perspectives requirement.
GEOL 160. Gems and Minerals Credits: 4. Introduction to minerals and gemstones. Includes basic crystallography and crystal chemistry; physical and optical properties of minerals, gemstone identification, consumer gemology. Fulfills natural science and mathematics requirement.
GEOL 190. Terroir: The Science of Wine Credits: 4. An interdisciplinary look at the science behind wine. The course will investigate the geology and geography of the major wine-growing areas of the world, and see how climate, culture and geology play a role in what grapes flourish where. Students will also learn the basics of sensory evaluation of wines. Enrollment limited to students over age 21. Must provide proof of age and sign a waiver. This course is not accepted as an elective for the A.B. or the B.S. in geology, or for the minor in earth sciences. Fulfills natural science and mathematics requirement.
GEOL 223. Hydrology Credits: 4.This course is focused on the dynamic nature of the water cycle, and includes investigations on human reliance and impacts upon this vital resource. Course content will include investigation of both surface and ground water systems, including flow dynamics, precipitation, surface runoff, stream restoration, streamflow monitoring and data analysis, ground water geology, and basic well design. Laboratory included. Prerequisite: GEOL 121 or instructor permission and an understanding of algebra. Alternate years.
GEOL 230. Environmental Pollution (ENVS 330) Credits: 4. This course examines the impacts of human culture and activity on the quality of air, water and soil with a focus on sources of contamination and the fate of pollutants in the environment. Laboratory focuses on experimental work and field studies that introduce students to the scientific investigation of environmental problems. Fulfills natural science and mathematics and social justice/environmental responsibility requirements. Offered based upon demand.
GEOL 242. Natural Science Seminars. (variable credits) Credits: (variable credits). Studies of the biology, geology, ecology and natural history of different field areas, including the American Southwest, the Galapagos, East Africa, North Carolina, and other areas. Includes a one-to-three-week trip to the area being studied, depending on when the course is offered; trip includes research project. When course is offered for a minimum of 4 semester credits, the course will fulfill the natural science and mathematics and social justice/environmental responsibility requirements.
GEOL 260. Independent Study Credits: 1-4. May also be offered at 360 and 460 levels. Independent and directed research, including field and laboratory experience.
GEOL 290. Internship Credits: 1-4. May also be offered at the 390 level.
GEOL 311. Optical Mineralogy Credits: 4. Principles of optical mineralogy, basic crystallography and crystal chemistry, rock-forming minerals and mineral formation and associations. Lab will focus on mineral identification in hand specimen and thin section. Alternate years in fall. Prerequisite: CHEM 111 (may be taken concurrently with instructor permission).
GEOL 312. Petrology Credits: 4. Introduction to the study of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Principles of classification, occurrence, phase equilibria, tectonic environments and origin/formation of rocks are emphasized in lectures. Labs emphasize description, classification and interpretation of textures and mineralogy in hand sample and in thin section. Alternate years in spring. Prerequisites: GEOL 311, CHEM 112 (may be taken concurrently with instructor permission).
GEOL 335. Structural Geology Credits: 4. Study of the deformation of rocks of the earth’s crust: descriptive and theoretical treatment of folding, faulting, jointing, unconformities, diapirs, plutons and the structural features found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; introduction to geophysical methods; introduction to the field of tectonics. Offered in alternate years in spring. Prerequisites: two laboratory courses in geology, MATH 115, or instructor permission.
GEOL 336. Geomorphology Credits: 4. Study of landforms and the processes involved in their formation, especially the investigation of fluviatile and arid geomorphic cycles, coastline development and theories of landscape evolution. Prerequisites: GEOL 121 and one other geology laboratory course or instructor permission. Offered based upon demand.
GEOL 340. Images of the Earth: GIS and Remote Sensing Credits: 4. Focuses on various ways to classify, represent and visualize the Earth's surface. Interpretation, creation and use of maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. Exploration, construction and use of geographic information systems (GIS) and other computer-based methods to create maps and visualize data. Application of knowledge and techniques to issues such as ecosystem management, environmental assessment, urban planning, geologic mapping, global change and archaeology. Can also count toward the CTIS major.
GEOL 412. Geochemistry (CHEM 412) Credits: 4. Distribution, movement and processes affecting chemical elements within the earth. Nuclear chemistry, formation of earth and planets; crystal chemistry and mineral structures; isotope geology, trace elements, thermodynamics in geology. No laboratory. Prerequisites: CHEM 111, three semesters of laboratory courses in geology or instructor permission.
GEOL 415. Paleontology Credits: 4. Study of fossils with major emphasis on invertebrates: classification and identification, principles of evolution and paleoecology; Earth history and the origin and history of life; application of paleontology to geologic problems, especially its use in stratigraphic studies. Includes a focus on scientific writing in geology. Offered in alternate years in fall. Prerequisites: GEOL 122 and another course in geology and/or biology and/or chemistry or instructor permission.
GEOL 416. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy Credits: 4. Advanced study of sedimentary rocks. Emphasis on sedimentary processes, grain size analysis, sedimentary structures and sedimentary petrography; the description, classification, correlation and interpretation of sedimentary rocks; principles of stratigraphic nomenclature; interpretation of tectonic conditions, depositional environments, and paleogeography; advanced historical geology. Prerequisites: four semesters of laboratory courses in geology or related science or instructor permission. Offered in alternate years in spring.
GEOL 470. Senior Thesis Credits: Credit variable. Independent research project begun at end of junior year. See department for details.